作品基本信息

作品名称:This life, which seems so fair

作者:William Drummond(威廉·德拉蒙德)

出版年代:1616

编注:无

作品原文

This Life, which seems so fair,
Is like a bubble blown up in the air
By sporting children's breath,
Who chase it everywhere
And strive who can most motion it bequeath:
And though it sometime seem of its own might,
Like to an eye of gold, to be fix'd there,
And firm to hover in that empty height,
That only is because it is so light.
But in that pomp it doth not long appear;
For, when 'tis most admired, in a thought[1],
Because it erst[2] was nought, it turns to nought.[3]

译文

曹明伦 译

看起来这般炫丽的生命
倒象是肥皂泡漂浮在空中,
由嬉戏的孩子们把它吹胀,
把它追逐到整个世尘,
努力使它不停息地飘荡。
虽然它有时也显得庄重,
象纯粹的黄金,凝固不变,
稳稳地翱翔在茫茫太空,
可这正是因为它过分轻飘。
——不能长久地保持它浮华的幻影;
因为哟,虽然它得到片刻的赞美,
可它本原就是虚无,定在虚无中消溶。

我的感想

这首诗是《Poems, The Second Part》中的Madrigal I[4],显然是里面比较著名的一首诗。

我对这首诗第7-8行的理解和译文有些不同。我认为,这句话用一般的语序表达出来应该是这样的:“(This life seems) to be fixed there and firm to hover in that empty height, like to an eye of gold.”也就是说,就像对于“eye of gold”那样,生命看起来仿佛定住了,在虚空中稳定地漂浮。我觉得“eye of gold”可能是一个习语,但是没有查到相关的解释;我猜测这里是稳定不变的意思。

在这首诗中,生命被比喻为肥皂泡,虽然在短时间内看起来是绚丽的,但存在时间却非常短暂,可能瞬间就会破灭——这是诗中后两句所描述的;除此之外,作者还认为,生命来自于虚无,破灭之后,也会化为虚无。这比通常所说的“归于尘土”更空虚和悲观,却也更加轻盈,不留痕迹。

作者没有否认,至少生命看起来是绚丽的;但他实际上为我们描述了一种比单纯的“空虚”更悲观的生命观。“By sporting children's breath... And strive who can most motion it bequeath”,我们的生命中发生的事情完全没有任何意义,而是随机发生的;或者说,也许生命有意义,但这种意义对于实际活着的我们完全无足轻重——嬉戏中的小孩也许会随便因为好玩而戳破一个肥皂泡,这可能就意味着某人的死亡。因而,生命除了“fair”之外的意义被完全消解了。

但甚至还有比生命更空虚的东西,那就是太空。在广阔而空虚的太空中,如此空幻的生命甚至也显得稳定不变了。但太空——或者说,虚无本身——是永恒的,而我们浮华的生命终究会在刹那间消溶在虚无中。


  1. in a thought: 'swift as a thought.' or, as we should say, 'in a flash.'(“像想法一样快”,或者说,“一刹那间”。)

  2. erst: 'at first': it is the superlative of ere='before.'(“erst”是“ere”的最高级,意为“最初”。)

  3. 最后两行在1616年的版本中作:
    For even when most admir'd, it in a thought,
    As swell'd from nothing, doth dissolve in nought.

  4. The poems of William Drummond of Hawthornden, Vol 1 by Drummond, William, 1585-1649; Ward, W. C. (William C.)

作品基本信息

作品名称:The Happy Heart(称心满意)
作者:Thomas Dekker(托马斯·德克尔)
出版年代:1603
编注:德克尔(Thomas Dekker,1570?-1632),英国剧作家及散文家。这首诗选自他的喜剧《能忍受考验的格里丝尔》[1]

作品原文

Art thou1 poor, yet hast thou golden slumbers?
O sweet content!
Art thou rich, yet is thy mind perplexed?
O punishment!
Dost thou laugh to see how fools are vexed
To add to golden numbers2, golden numbers?
O sweet content! O sweet, O sweet content!
Work apace, apace, apace, apace;
Honest labour bears a lovely face;
Then hey nonny nonny, hey nonny nonny!

Canst drink the waters of the crisped3 spring?
O sweet content!
Swimm'st thou in wealth, yet sink'st in thine own tears?
O punishment!
Then he that patiently want's burden bears
No burden bears, but is a king, a king!
O sweet content! O sweet, O sweet content!
Work apace, apace, apace, apace;
Honest labour bears a lovely face;
Then hey nonny nonny, hey nonny nonny!

译文

戴镏龄 译

你没有钱,却睡得甜丝丝?
哦,知足常乐!
你富裕,莫非却惶惑不安?
哦,惩罚谴责!
愚人为钱上堆钱而忧烦,
你看见是不是觉得这可笑?
哦,知足常乐,知足常常乐!
加快工作呀,加快,加快,
认真干活,就面容可爱;
啷哩,咳,啷哩,咳,啷哩啊啷哩!

泉水涟漪,将它酌来品尝?
哦,知足常乐!
钱里翻滚,又泪水中浸泡?
哦,惩罚谴责!
贫穷的担子咬紧牙根挑,
这种人没负担,是南面王!
哦,知足常乐,知足常常乐!
加快工作呀,加快,加快,
认真干活,就面容可爱;
啷哩,咳,啷哩,咳,啷哩啊啷哩!

我的感想

Prothalamion那里卡了得有一个多月了,除了很忙之外,主要还是因为这首诗太长,读不完。所以先从下一首开始了。

有人(Amy Marcy Cheney Beach)曾经把这首歌改编成曲子。Youtube上有这首歌的演唱版本[2],好像还不难听。不过更神奇的是,我发现这首歌曾经被Beatles(或者更准确的说是Paul McCartney)改编成一首叫"Golden Slumbers / Carry That Weight / The End"的歌,真是令人惊讶……

好吧,其实看了这首诗,我心里还是挺不舒服的,不知道是当时的作者太不食人间烟火,还是现代社会已经彻底的变了。至少现在人们已经不喜欢“没有钱,却睡得好”这种说法了,没有钱,必定要天天焦虑,日日焦虑;而有了钱,心里就有了底气,可以每日睡得安稳了(虽然可能还是会焦虑自己的钱不如别人多)。(我不是说别人,我就是说“新世相”那个公众号)

所以Beatles改编的歌词还是很棒啊……至少感觉稍微更加温暖一些。

Once there was a way,
To get back homeward.
Once there was a way
To get back home.
Sleep, pretty darling,
Dot not cry
And I will sing a lullaby.
Golden slumbers,
Fill your eyes
Smiles await you when you rise
Sleep pretty darling
Do not cry
And I will sing a lullaby.
Once there was a way
To get back homeward
Once there was a way
To get back home
Sleep, pretty darling
Do not cry
And I will sing a lullaby.
Once, there was a way to get back homeward
Once, there was a way to get back home
Sleep, pretty darling, do not cry
And I will sing a lullaby
Boy, you're going to carry that weight,
Carry that weight a long time
Boy, you're going to carry that weight
Carry that weight a long time
I never give you my pillow
I only send you my invitations
And in the middle of the celebrations
I break, I break, I break down
Boy, you're going to carry that weight
Carry that weight a long time
Boy, you're going to carry that weight
Carry that weight a long time
Once, there was a way to get back homeward
Once, there was a way to get back home
Sleep, pretty darling, do not cry
And I will sing a lullaby

参考文献

[1] Patient Grissel. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patient_Grissel
[2] O Sweet Content. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nyu1nTkqxiE
[3] Golden Slumbers / Carry That Weight / The End. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qrDlRsARwk

脚注

1thou: i.e. the reader; the second and fourth lines are exclamations, not addresses.(“你”指的是读者;第二行和第四行是感叹,不是对读者说的话。)
2golden numbers: 'large sums of gold.'(很多金钱。)
3crisped: lit. 'curled,' so 'ruffled.'(卷曲而褶皱的。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Revolutions(循环)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第六〇首。

作品原文

Like as the waves make towards the pebbled shore,
So do our minutes hasten to their end;
Each changing place with that which goes before,
In sequent1 toil all forwars do contend.

Nativity, once in the main of light,
Crawls to maturity, wherewith being crown'd,
Crooked eclipses 'gainst his glory fight,
And Time that gave doth now his gift confound.

Time doth transfix the flourish2 set on youth,
And delves the parellels in beauty's brow;
Feeds on the rarities of nature's truth,
And nothing stands but for his scythe to mow:

And yet, to times in hope3, my verse shall stand
Praising thy worth, despite his cruel hand.

译文

梁宗岱 译

象波浪滔滔不息地滚向沙滩:
我们的光阴息息奔赴着终点;
后浪和前浪不断地循环替换,
前推后拥,一个个在奋勇争先。

生辰,一度涌现于光明的金海,
爬行到壮年,然后,既登上极顶,
凶冥的日蚀便遮没它的光彩,
时光又撕毁了它从前的赠品。

时光戳破了青春颊上的光艳,
在美的前额挖下深陷的战壕,
自然的至珍都被它肆意狂啖,
一切挺立的都难逃它的镰刀:

可是我的诗未来将屹立千古,
歌颂你的美德,不管它多残酷!

我的感想

这又是莎士比亚的常见题材了。人生匆匆流逝,一切美好的事物都会被带走,所以不知道人生的意义在何处。但是歌颂美好事物的诗是永存的。这句话听起来很像陈词滥调,但我现在觉得莎士比亚可能真是这么想的了。

参考文献

脚注

1sequent: 'following one another.' (接连发生的。)
2transfix the flourish: 'pierce through the gloss.'(戳穿了光彩。)
3times in hope: 'ages yet to come.'(尚未来临的日子。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第八七首。译者原有这样的译解:“诗人向爱友告别,并且撤销了他们以前因错误而订的盟约,但诗人似乎仍希望能从这种完全的解约而引起爱友的回心转意。”

作品原文

Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing,
And like enough thou know'st thy estimate:
The charter1 of thy worth gives thee releasing;
My bonds in thee are all determinate.

For how do I hold thee but thy granting?
And for that riches where is my deserving?
The cause of this fair gift in me is wanting,
And so my patent2 back again is swerving.

Thyself thou gav'st, thy own worth then not knowing,
Or me, to whom thou gav'st it, else mistaking;
So thy great gift, upon misprision growing3,
Comes home again, on better judgement making.

Thus have I had thee as a dream doth flatter;
In sleep, a king; but waking, no such matter.

译文

屠岸 译

再会!你太贵重了,我没法保有你,
你也多半明白你自己的价值:
你的才德给予你自由的权利;
我跟你订的盟约就到此为止。

你不答应,我怎能把你占有?
对于这样的福气,我哪儿相配?
我没有接受这美好礼物的理由,
给我的特许证因而就掉头而归。

你当时不知道自己的身价有多大,
或者是把我看错了,才给我深情;
所以,你这份厚礼,送错了人家,
终于回家了,算得是明智的决定。

我曾经有过你,象一场阿谀的迷梦,
我在那梦里称了王,醒来一场空。

我的感想

真的好惨。就现代的想法来看,那就是恋爱双方中一方前进得太快了,另一方跟不上;或者说,一方本来是年轻貌美,善解人意的,另一方配不上,却因为种种原因还是在一起了。不相配的人是不可能长久下去的。当然,这样也实在是太自卑了。

当然曾经也是很感动的。把这么优秀的自己送给了我,真是一份重礼啊。总之这首诗苦乐参半,其实也没有想象中那么惨。

最后两句写得很顺耳,节奏很棒。

刚才阅读了一些其他的解读。不过恕我直言,这里的爱人恐怕还是那位可爱的年轻男性。

TODO(我以前写的都是什么破烂解析?)

参考文献

脚注

1charter: properly a written grant of rights by the Sovereign; here his lady's worth had given her such rights. (实际上是统治者对权利作出的书面保证;此处,这位夫人的价值给了她这样的权力。其实我也没看懂这个注解。)
2patent: a right similarly granted to the exclusive enjoyment of some privilege.
3upon misprision growing: 'being based upon a misconception of your own value.' The word is derived from the verb to misprize, and must not be confounded with the legal term misprision (akin to the French méprendre), meaning a wrongful act or omission.

作品基本信息

作品名称:Prothalamion
作者:Edmund Spenser(爱德蒙·斯宾塞)
出版年代:1599
编注:此诗选自《皆大欢喜》第二幕第七场,诗中将大自然的善与人类的恶进行了对照。

作品原文

Calm was the day, and through the trembling air
Sweet-breathing Zephyrus1 did softly play—
A gentle spirit, that lightly did delay
Hot Titan's beams, which then did glister fair;
When I (whom sullen care,
Through discontent of my long fruitless stay
In princes' court, and expectation vain
Of idle hopes, which still do fly away
Like empty shadows, did afflict my brain)
Walk'd forth to ease my pain
Along the shore of sliver-streaming Thames;
Whose rutty2 bank, the which his river hems,
Was painted all with variable flowers,
And all the meads adorn'd with dainty gems
Fit to deck maidens' bowers,
And crown their paramours3
Against the bridal day, which is not long4;
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

There in a meadow by the river's side
A flock of nymphs I chanced to espy,
All lovely daughters of the flood thereby5,
With goodly greenish locks all loose untied
As each had been a bride;
And each one had a little wicker basket
Made of fine twigs, entrailed6 curiously,
In which they gather'd flowers to fill their flasket7,
And with fine fingers cropt full feateously8
The tender stalks on high.
Of every sort which in that meadow grew
They gather'd some; the violet, pallid blue,
The little daisy that at evening closes,
The virgin lily and the primrose true,
With store of vermeil9 roses,
To deck their bridegrooms' posies
Against the bridal day, which was not long:
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

With that I saw two swans of goodly hue
Come softly swimming down along the lee10;
Two fairer birds I yet did never see;
The snow which doth the top of Pindus strow
Did never whiter show,
Nor Jove himself, when he a swan would be
For love of Leda, whiter did appear;
Yet Leda was (they say) as white as he,
Yet not so white as these, nor nothing near;
So purely white they were,
That even the gentle stream, the which them bare,
Seem'd foul to them, and bade his billows spare
To wet their silken feathers, lest they might
Soil their fair plumes with water not so fair,
And mar their beauties bright,
That shone as Heaven's light
Against their bridal day, which was not long;
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

Eftsoons11 the nymphs, which now had flowers their fill12,
Ran all in haste to see that silver brood
As they came floating on the crystal flood;
Whom when they saw, they stood amazed still
Their wondering eyes to fill;
Them seem'd13 they never saw a sight so fair
Of fowls, so lovely, that they sure did deem
Them heavenly born, or to be that same pair
Which through the sky draw Venus' silver team;
For sure they did not seem
To be begot of any earthly seed,
But rather angels, or of angels' breed;
Yet were they bred of summer's heat, they say,
In sweetest season, when each flower and weed
The earth did fresh array;
So fresh they seem'd as day,
Even as their bridal day, which was not long:
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

Then forth they all out of their baskets drew
Great store of flowers, the honour of the field,
That to the sense did fragrant odours yield,
All which upon those goodly birds they threw
And all the waves did strew,
That like old Peneus' waters they did seem
When down along by pleasant Tempe's shore
Scatter'd with flowers, through Thessaly they stream,
That they appear, through lilies' plenteous store,
Like a bride's chamber-floor.
Two of those nymphs meanwhile, two garlands bound,
Of freshest flowers which in that mead they found,
The which presenting all in trim array,
Their snowy foreheads therewithal they crown'd;
Whilst one did sing this lay
Prepared against that day,
Against their bridal day, which was not long:
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

'Ye gentle birds! the world's fair ornament,
And Heaven's glory, whom this happy hour
Doth lead unto your lovers' blissful bower,
Joy may you have, and gentle heart's content
Of your love's couplement;
And let fair Venus, that is queen of love,
With her heart-quelling son upon you smile,
Whose smile, they say, hath virtue to remove
All love's dislike, and friendship's faulty guile
For ever to assoil.

译文

戴镏龄 译

宁静的日子呀,阵阵清风
轻微地吹拂,在空中飘荡,
大气柔和,使晴空的骄阳<>
明媚温煦,不致烧灼碧空;
我正感不受用,
由于淹留王廷常是失意,
期望终成梦想,无从实现,<>
冀求的东西都徒然飞逝,
无影无踪,心情苦不堪言,
于是散步排遣,
沿着清凌凌的泰晤士河,
两岸上发出稠密的枝柯,
各种奇卉,无不鲜花怒放,
青草地上珠光宝气繁多,
宜于装饰闺房,
插在情人头上,
迎接佳期,屈指就在目下,
可爱的河,轻轻流到歌罢。

河边上呈现出一块草坪,
那儿我瞥见仙女一大群,
好姑娘,在邻近川泽成长,
头上飘散着美丽的青鬓,
好象新人出聘。
她们都携着一只小柳筐,
细条做料子,精工编织成,
用来采集花枝,满满盛装,
纤纤手指,摘取巧妙认真,
顶部嫩的花梗。
草原上这样那样花灿烂,
每样采一些,紫罗兰淡蓝,
黄昏时合上眼睛的雏菊,
以及百合纯洁,樱草烂漫,
嫣红玫瑰成束,
献作新郎礼物,
迎接佳期,屈指就在目下,
可爱的河,轻轻流到歌罢。

接着有漂亮的天鹅一双,<>
飘飘然在水上顺流下游,
平生初见,最美的鸟两头,
雪洒在坪达山的高峰上,<>
输掉白的光芒;
宙父变做天鹅追求妮黛,
也比不上这对赛粉欺银;<>
论白,宙父、妮黛难分好坏,
但是都难和这一双接近,
她们异常白净。
轻柔的流水,负载着她们,
似嫌形秽,戒浪花莫溅喷
她们的洁羽,那样就必然
使浑水给她们带来污痕,
让太阳般美颜
因此添上缺陷,
迎接佳期,屈指就在目下,
可爱的河,轻轻流到歌罢。

仙女采花不久,收获丰满,
奔去看这对洁白的俦<>侣,
正泛泛而来,清水上漂浮,
姑娘见了,无不感到茫然,
惊得直瞪两眼;
这样的美禽,似从未见过,
多可爱呀,一定生在天堂,
或是给爱神挽车的双鹅,<>
挽她的车穿过云霄之上;
她们绝对不象
我们这个尘世间的产物,
而是天使,或是同一种族。
据说她们是在夏季出生,
和煦时节,花草枝叶扶疏,
大地新装披身,
好似旭日东升,
恰似佳日,屈指就在目下,
可爱的河,轻轻流到歌罢。

仙女从筐里取出许多花,
这些都是田野上的光辉,
发散出扑鼻的阵阵香味;
她们把花撒向好鸟身上,
水波吐秀流芳,
象泌罗斯江水流声活活,<>
沿着丹丕的可喜山谷间,
满载花枝,从帖撒利流过;
有数不尽的百合花,乍看,
象香闺的铺板。
这时其中两位仙女挑选

我的感想

[1]

参考文献

[1] As You Like It. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/As_You_Like_It

脚注

1Zephyrus: 'the west wind.'(西风。)
2rutty: 'abounding in ruts.'(查词典,“rutty”一词为“遍地车辙的”之义,但看译文,此处似乎译作“有很多枝干”的意思了?)
3paramours: 'lovers'.(情人们。)
4is not long: 'is close at hand.'(近在眼前了。)
5the flood thereby: 'the stream which ran beside them.'(他们身边流过的小溪。)
6entrailed: 'entwined.'(相互缠绕的。)
7flasket: 'a long shallow basket' (Johnson); the word is a diminutive of 'flask.'(长而浅的篮子;对“flask”的爱称。)
8full feateously: 'very skillfully or elegantly.'(非常灵巧而优雅地。)
9vermeil: a poetic form of 'vermilion.'(“朱红色”的另一种写法。)
10the lee: here and in L 115 below, Spenser uses this word for 'stream' or 'current.'(在此处和下面的第115行,斯宾塞用这个词来表示“溪流”或“水流”之义。)
11Eftsoon: 'soon after.'(很快。)
12had flowers their fill: 'flowers, as many as they wanted.'(已经拿了尽可能多的花朵。)
13Them seem'd: 'it seemed to them.'(在她们看来。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Pack, clouds, away, and welcome day
作者:Thomas Heywood(托马斯·海伍德)
出版年代:1608
编注:海伍德(Thomas Heywood,1570?-1641),英国剧作家。本诗选自他以罗马神话为题材写成的戏剧《鲁克丽丝受辱记》第四幕第六场。

作品原文

Pack, clouds, away, and welcome day,
With night we banish sorrow;
Sweet air blow soft, mount lark aloft
To give my Love good-morrow1!
Wings from the wind to please her mind
Notes from the lark I'll borrow;
Bird prune thy wing, nightingale sing,
To give my Love good-morrow;
To give my Love good-morrow
Notes from them all I'll borrow.

Wake from thy nest, Robin-red-breast,
Sing birds in every furrow;
And from each bill, let music shrill
Give my fair Love good-morrow!
Blackbird and thrush in every bush,
Stare2, linnet, and, cock-sparrow,
You pretty elves, amongst yourselves
Sing my fair Love good-morrow!
To give my Love good-morrow
Sing birds in every furrow!

译文

戴镏龄 译

云,散开吧,迎接白天,
夜尽了,驱走忧伤;
朝气轻吹,云雀升起,
给我爱早安送上!
我要借云雀的歌声,
趁风娱她的心肠;
鸟儿整翅,流莺请啭,
给我爱早安送上!
要借大家的歌声,
给我爱早安送上。

知更鸟从巢里醒起,
田沟上鸟语响亮;
每张鸟喙鸣声清新,
给我爱早安送上!
枝头的乌鸦和画眉,
八哥、红鸟、麻雀郎,
可爱的小精灵们,大家
给我爱早安送上!
田沟上鸟语响亮,
给我爱早安送上。

我的感想

这次又可以说很多东西了。这首诗倒是很欢快,但是看到《鲁克丽丝受辱记》这个来源,就觉得哪里不太对劲。

托马斯·海伍德

海伍德是一位著名的英国剧作家、演员和文学家。他的主要贡献是在伊丽莎白一世晚期和詹姆斯一世时期的剧院里上演的剧本。他最知名的作品是一部家庭悲剧,《被善意所杀的女人》(A Woman Killed with Kindness),这部悲剧最初上演于1603年。他是一位多产的作家,据说创作了220部戏剧,不过现在只有一小部分留下来了。很可惜,The Rape of Lucrece 在维基百科上并没有词条。[1]

《鲁克丽丝受辱记》

总之据说是根据莎士比亚的作品改编的。我找到了一个似乎是古代拼写的版本[2],不过没有分场和幕,非常难看。随后我又在Internet Archive上找到了现代拼写的版本[3],还有一部分介绍。至于这个剧本的全部内容,我觉得可以开一篇新文章了。(现在还没写完,如果写完了会补上)简单来说,它的剧情和莎士比亚的《鲁克丽丝受辱记》基本类似,但是扩展了很多额外的情节;剧本以塞克斯图斯(即塔昆,不过此剧本中称他为Sextus,所以姑且换个称呼)和布鲁图斯在决斗中双双被杀结束。

这首诗选自第四幕第六场,此时塞克斯图斯刚刚从柯拉廷城堡中仓皇逃出,次日清早,众人在阿狄亚城前时,柯拉廷唱起了这首歌。听起来实在是太过讽刺了。大概是强调了一种悲剧的氛围吧。

参考文献

[1] Thomas Heywood. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Heywood
[2] The rape of Lucrece a true Roman tragedie. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A03244.0001.001/1:3?rgn=div1;view=fulltext
[3] Thomas Heywood. https://archive.org/details/heywood00heywiala

脚注

1good-morrow: 'good morning.'(早上好。)
2Stare: 'starling,' which is a diminutive of the former.(“stare”是对椋鸟的爱称。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Cupid and Campaspe(爱神和康帕丝)
作者:John Lyly(约翰·黎里)
出版年代:1584
编注:黎里(John Lyly,1554?-1806),英国文艺复兴时代的剧作家,他第一个用散文体代替诗体创作喜剧。本诗选自喜剧《康帕丝》第三幕第五场,诗中形象而活泼地描绘了美和爱的魅力,这种魅力甚至支配了爱神。

作品原文

Cupid and my Campaspe play'd
At cards for kisses; Cupid paid:
He stakes his quiver, bow, and arrows,
His mother's doves, and team of sparrows;
Loses them too; then down he throws
The coral of his lip, the rose
Growing on's1 cheek (but none knows how);
With these, the crystal2 of his brow,
And then the dimple of his chin;
All these did my Campaspe win:
At last he set3 her both his eyes—
She won, and Cupid blind did rise.
O Love! has she done this to thee?
What shall, alas! become of me?

译文

戴镏龄 译

爱神和康帕丝斗牌4
赌接吻,爱神被击败;
他又赌箭筒,弓和矢,
母亲的麻雀和鸽子;5
输了,摔下嘴唇珊瑚,
两颊上的玫瑰花株,
泛起的那无名面红;
加上眉宇晶亮玲珑,
还有下巴上的酒涡,
通通被康帕丝赢走。
最后,他拿两眼去赌,
又输了,他变成矇瞽6
爱神,她待你是这样?
哎,什么是我的下场?

我的感想

这首诗可聊的东西又非常的多而庞杂,只能慢慢说了,看来要花去今晚的不少时间。(虽然明天还有重要的事情,但是先娱乐一下再说……)

约翰·黎里其人

约翰·黎里[1]现在似乎不是很有名了(而且这首诗在网上也没有什么人讨论),不过可以从维基百科看出,他是个当时很重要的剧作家和作家,而且风格还被命名了,叫做“绮丽体”(euphuism)。这听起来就很浮夸了,是人们通常会轻视的风格类型。不过,看了维基之后,我发现,他这么写是意有所指的。(不过这部分来自剧本的维基,之后再说)

生平实在是懒得(或者说没时间)翻译了。粗粗看了几眼,发现了一点有趣的东西。

After he left Oxford, where he had the reputation of "a noted wit", Lyly seems to have attached himself to Lord Burghley. "This noble man", he writes in the Glasse for Europe, in the second part of Euphues (1580), "I found so ready being but a straunger to do me good, that neyther I ought to forget him, neyther cease to pray for him, that as he hath the wisdom of Nestor, so he may have the age, that having the policies of Ulysses he may have his honor, worthy to lyve long, by whom so many lyve in quiet, and not unworthy to be advaunced by whose care so many have been preferred."

黎里在此处狂热地赞美了伯利勋爵(Lord Burghley)。实际上,他就是威廉·塞西尔,之前提到过的维尔的抚养者兼岳父。之后黎里似乎还和维尔闹了一点别扭。这可真是非常有趣了。

后来,总之,黎里的剧本对莎士比亚的剧作,特别是浪漫喜剧,起到了很大的影响。

康帕丝

传说中,康帕丝是亚历山大大帝的情妇。古代被认为最杰出的画家阿培里兹(Apelles)为她画像。老普林尼在《自然史》中声称,接下来发生了这样的事情:亚历山大看到了肖像惊人的美丽,意识到画家比他更能欣赏康帕丝的美丽,也更爱她;于是便留下肖像,却将康帕丝让给阿培里兹。当然,这整件事基本都是传说。后来康帕丝成为了文学作品中情妇的代名词。[2]

我对这个故事的看法是:嗯,除了又一次感慨老普林尼的不靠谱之外,我觉得亚历山大和阿培里兹都没怎么尊重康帕丝,不过这样就又转到女权话题了。当然,这个故事提出了一个哲学问题:创作者的地位是否一定高于欣赏者?或者不如先问,这个故事中的画家到底能不能算是一位创作者?他能够画出康帕丝惊人的美,是因为他的技艺高超,因为他深爱绘画的对象,还是因为康帕丝本人太美了,而他的画只是反映出了这一特质?这种描摹者和被描摹对象的关系是否是正常的?唉,在这些问题中,康帕丝都是完全的客体,与一株漂亮的植物无异,真是令人感到不适。

《康帕丝》的剧情

这部剧本没有太多逻辑和剧情可言(据说是这样的),它的可取之处主要在于华丽的语言。总之,发生了这样的事:除了上面的传说之外,亚历山大还和第欧根尼、柏拉图、亚里士多德等哲学家探讨了许多问题。不过,至少康帕丝不再是完全的植物了:她也爱上了阿培里兹。亚历山大成全了他们,然后继续征战去了。

黎里在《康帕丝》中没有进行任何道德或伦理说教——因而突破了早期戏剧的“道德剧”(morality play)传统。和他之后的大部分剧作也不同的是,《康帕丝》也避开了讽喻。事实上,《康帕丝》是一个纯粹地为娱乐而讲述的浪漫历史故事。黎里对中世纪思维模式的这种背离为之后的(且更好的)作家提供了一种新的模板。这部剧本被称为当时的“第一部浪漫戏剧”。[3]

分析

我只在雅虎问答[4]上找到了一篇普通的分析,大意和这首诗的编注相同:

  • 爱神为了赢得康帕丝的吻,甚至愿意失去自己身上神性的部分
  • 连爱神都会屈服于爱的魅力,我这种凡人当然对爱更无能为力了
  • 英国贵族女性一直都很喜欢打牌

我倒是觉得,说“连爱神都会屈服于爱的魅力”这种话,虽然和神话是符合的,却不太符合逻辑:爱神本身是“爱”的人格化,那堕入爱情的爱神算是什么呢?对此,我的看法是,爱神代表了一种更加理性、更加神圣的爱,而他屈服于的这种“爱”是感性的痴迷和疯狂。(这听起来像是《会饮》里的分析了,什么有两个爱神之类的。)当然也可以说,把爱神作为主角之一只是为了强调爱情的魅力极其的大。

实际上,我从欢快活泼的表象中看到了疯狂、恐怖和残忍。疯狂上面已经说过了。至于恐怖……丢掉眼睛难道还不算恐怖吗?至少在我的想象中,这是令人惧怕的。最糟糕的是,康帕丝要这些东西做什么呢?爱神身上所有美的部分,甚至包括眼睛……如果她是需要小美人鱼声音的邪恶巫婆,那这倒是可以理解;但她已经非常美丽了,拿走这些,似乎只是为了在赌博中证明自己的美,是一种纯粹的残忍。或者说,诗人内心中认为女性都是这样残忍的,她们会玩弄别人的感情而不自知。

这些分析大概太阴暗了。事实上,之所以会有这种想法,是因为这首诗让我想起了王尔德的《快乐王子》。王子失去了他的眼睛、剑柄和身上覆盖的金叶子,但那是为了帮助穷人;康帕丝是为了什么呢?但是,即使快乐王子的行为更合理,这个童话仍然让我感到非常不适。我想了很久,但是仍然不知道该如何表达,不妨先算了吧,已经快凌晨三点了。

参考文献

[1] John Lyly. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lyly
[2] Campaspe. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaspe
[3] Campaspe (play). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaspe_(play)
[4] Can anyone tell me some literary critiques of this poem. https://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071110080625AARalD8&guccounter=1#

脚注

1on's: 'on his.'
2crystal: 'transparent clearness.'(透明清澈。)
3set: 'staked.'(赌上)
4爱神指维纳斯之子丘比特(Cupid);康帕丝(Campaspe,又译作坎巴斯帕)传说是古希腊亚历山大皇帝的爱妃,以美貌著称。——译者
5麻雀和鸽子等是献给维纳斯的鸟,为她拉车,此外,还有燕子和天鹅。——译者
6矇瞽(méng gǔ),盲人。

作品基本信息

作品名称:Madrigal(情歌)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1596
编注:此诗选自《威尼斯商人》第三幕第二场。标题《情歌》系原编者所加。

作品原文

Tell me where is Fancy1 bred,
Or in the heart, or in the head?
How begot, how nourishèd?
Reply, reply.
It is engender'd in the eyes,
With gazing fed; and Fancy dies2
In the cradle where it lies:
Let us all ring Fancy's knell;
I'll begin it, –Ding, dong, bell.
–Ding, dong, bell.

译文

朱生豪 译

告诉我爱情生长在何方?
还是在脑海?还是在心房?
它怎样发生?它怎样成长?
回答我,回答我。
爱情的火在眼睛里点亮,
凝视是爱情生活的滋养,
它的摇篮便是它的坟堂。
让我们把爱的丧钟鸣响。
玎珰!玎珰!
玎珰!玎珰!

我的感想

本来看了这首诗之后没有什么感想,只是觉得“Ding, dong, bell”听起来很像Full Fathom Five里面的丧钟。不过其实这首诗要欢乐得多。

……

因为我发现了一首这首诗的非常棒的改编歌曲!(至少是我觉得很棒啦……)就是Matthew Harris[1]的改编版本。在youtube上有一个国立台湾大学的演唱版本[2],我认为非常棒。网易云音乐上也有一个版本[3],虽然没有那么好听,不过胜在方便,所以我现在正在单循着这首歌。

背景简介我就直接摘录别人的说法了。

本曲出自於《威尼斯商人》(The Merchant of Venice),第三幕之第二景,是莎劇中涉及音樂較多的一齣戲劇。女主角波西亞(Portia)繼承了父親的龐大的遺產,追求者絡繹不絕;波西亞的父親臨終前規定求婚者必須從三個分別由金、銀、鉛製成的盒子中,挑出一個內藏波西亞畫像的,才能與她成婚。
這日,波西亞的意中人巴薩尼歐(Bassanio)前來求婚,但礙於家規,波西亞不能向巴薩尼歐吐露箱內實情,心中焦躁可想而知,便讓家僕哼起這首《告訴我愛情來自何方》作為答案的暗示。
歌詞中的fancy意指對華美外表的迷戀,暗示巴薩尼歐勿以貌取物,因為美麗的事物總是倏忽而逝。在金、銀、鉛三個盒子中,只有鉛盒最為樸實無華;此外前三行的末字的尾韻分別為bred[εd]、head[εd]、nourished[εd],和鉛(lead)一字不謀而合!聰明的巴薩尼歐自能領會其弦外之音,毫不猶豫的選擇了鉛盒,抱得美人歸。[4]

先说说我直接的感想吧。我觉得,合唱和轮唱为这首歌添上了一种神圣而欢乐的氛围。听了这首歌,我才想到,鲍西亚让仆人唱起这首歌时,内心应该是充满着急切和爱情的甜蜜的。“Reply, Reply”就像是对巴萨尼奥的急切的提示:我对你的爱情已经在我的眼中点亮了,请你切勿以貌取物,选中错误的盒子,辜负我的一片苦心。这听起来固然很美,可是却带上了一丝嘲讽:你们两人之间的爱情也就是这么迅速点亮起来的啊(不管是在脑海还是心房,都是通过眼睛,这点没什么问题)。我想鲍西亚自己也明白这一点,“让我们把爱的丧钟鸣响”。然而,这么一想,即使她知道爱情是如此易变的,仍然愿意勇敢地投身其中。

……以上全部都是脑补。稍微翻了翻剧本,鲍西亚和巴萨尼奥两人确实是一见钟情的。不过我想,他们是因为性情投合,三观合拍而迅速相恋的(而不是看脸),至少为他们我就不用担心了。但是我觉得这首歌仍然是带有一点忧郁的。即使看的是个人品质,那仍然是通过眼睛的啊,有可能会看错的。

不妨在此翻译一个更严肃的分析。

就像很多其他的莎士比亚的诗歌那样,这首歌在表面上是浪漫迷人的,潜台词却是苦涩而反讽的。此处“fancy”一词意为“爱”,却在“take a fancy”(喜欢上,爱上)的意义中暗示着肤浅的爱慕和痴心。这首歌提出了一个哲学问题:爱情(fancy)到底从何而来?爱情到底是感性的(“在脑海”)还是理性的(“在心房”)?这首歌对此的回答是:爱情来源于眼睛——既不是脑海也不是心房。然而,爱情也会在那里消亡。“lie”一词具有双重含义,暗示着,爱情既居住在它的“摇篮”(研究)里,又是具有欺骗性的,因为这样的爱情是基于外在的美貌,而非内心的品质的。这首歌又进一步扩展了问题:当人们相爱,爱情是如何维持下去的呢?歌中对此的回应不多,但它确实对浪漫爱情短暂的性质进行了评价,声称“它的摇篮便是它的坟堂”。“丧钟”一词特指了葬礼时鸣响的钟声,表示有人死去了。在这里,被哀悼的人是人格化的爱情;丧钟为爱情的“死亡”而敲响。[5]

参考文献

[1] Matthew Harris. http://matthewharrismusic.com/news.html
[2] Tell Me Where is Fancy Bred (Matthew Harris) - National Taiwan University Chorus. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lQ59JqWP2aU
[3] Shakespeare Songs: Tell Me Where Is Fancy Bred. https://music.163.com/#/song?id=538751916
[4] Tell Me Where is Fancy Bred《告訴我愛情來自何方》. http://blog.xuite.net/kiki79426/wretch/104895822-Tell+Me+Where+is+Fancy+Bred《告訴我愛情來自何方》
[5] Tell Me Where is Fancy Bred. http://shakesongs.com/tell-me-where-is-fancy-bred/

脚注

1Fancy: 'love.'
2Fancy dies, etc.: love, which is born in the eyes, may die there before coming to maturity; which means no more than that the eyes can show the birth and speedy death of love.(爱情生于眼中,也可能会在成熟之前在眼中消亡;意思是说,除了眼睛,没有什么东西能够更深刻地反映出爱情的发生和迅速的消亡。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:The Triumph of Death(死的胜利)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎士比亚十四行诗第七一首。

作品原文

No longer mourn for me when I am dead
Than you shall hear1 the surly sullen bell
Give warning to the world, that I am fled
From this vile world, with vilest worms to dwell;

Nay, if you read this line, remember not
The hand that writ it; for I love you so,
That I in your sweet thoughts would be forgot
If thinking on me then should make you woe2.

O if, I say, you look upon this verse
When I perhaps compounded3 am with clay,
Do not so much as my poor name rehearse,
But let your love even with my life decay;

Lest the wise world4 should look into your moan,
And mock you with me after I am gone.

译文

梁宗岱 译

我死去的时候别再为我悲哀,
当你听见那沉重凄惨的葬钟
普告给全世界说我已经离开
这龌龊世界去伴最龌龊的虫:

不呀,当你读起这诗,别再记起
那写它的手;因为我爱到这样,
宁愿被遗忘在你甜蜜的心里,
如果想起我会使你不胜哀伤。

如果呀,我说,如果你看见这诗,
那时候或许我已经化作泥土,
连我这可怜的名字也别提起,
但愿你的爱与我的生命同腐。

免得这聪明世界猜透你的心,
在我死去之后把你也当作笑柄。

我的感想

我还是挺喜欢这首诗的。在youtube上有一个BBC出的朗诵视频[1],感觉挺不错的。而且还有很多其他的视频,似乎这首诗的人气还不错。

到底要不要感慨这首诗中的深情呢?这样的深情到底是真实的还是一种写作技巧呢?在读了好多莎士比亚的诗之后,我开始起了这样的怀疑。不过似乎大部分人[2]还是认为,Fair Youth系列的诗表露的是一种真实的感情,是自传式的诗歌。

即使这样安慰了自己,我心里仍然对莎士比亚起了一层隔膜,因为我开始逐渐意识到,我很难用他的诗歌来表达自己的感情,或者说,无法和我自己的感受完全对位起来;因为这是只有莎士比亚才能写出来的诗。

O! none, unless this miracle have might,
That in black ink my love may still shine bright.
...Sonnet 65.

他的生命、爱情和诗歌(还有剧作,嗯)是紧密地结合在一起的,这之间碰撞出了奇妙的结果,也许值得大书特书地来分析一番。他到底如何看待自己的爱情?为何要把自己的爱人写在诗中?是为了奉承、为了感动、为了记录,还是为了永恒?……我不知道。

关于这首诗的一点更正式的分析是这样的。第71-74首诗通常被分为一组,它们反映了诗人对自己有限的生命的思考。在和他的爱友的关系中,诗人年龄更大,而且他相信自己会更早去世,因此他写下这首诗用来安慰他的朋友。在读过这么多关于时间能摧毁一切的十四行诗之后,我们发现,很显然,莎士比亚深受关于失去和死亡的忧郁情绪的困扰。在其他的很多诗中,诗人在他的爱友身上找到了安慰,他是诗人心灵和情感的救赎者。但是即便如此,诗人仍然无法摆脱死亡带来的悲哀之感。这首诗中表现出的无助(“with vilest worms to dwell”)似乎暗示着,诗人在写这首诗的时候的信心是很缺乏的。而且,最后两行显示了诗人对他和这位理想化了的年轻人之间关系的不安和焦虑,因为他害怕他们的朋友会嘲笑他的爱人对他的怀念。这似乎暗示着这位年轻人缺乏良好的判断力。[3]

读了这个分析之后,我对这首诗的好感增加了。之前我觉得最后两句是败笔,但这样分析一番,反倒觉得这两句反映了莎士比亚自己的恐惧和弱点。我之前只是觉得对“wise world”的注释很有趣。世界真的明智到了不会为逝去的东西伤心吗?我想,大部分人都是按照没有昨日,也没有死亡的方式每天忙忙碌碌的生活的。怀旧往往发生在人的情绪最脆弱的时候。

参考文献

[1] 'No longer mourn for me when I am dead' - Shakespeare's Sonnet 71 | Doctors - BBC. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BybOQ3jl3yI
[2] Are Shakespeare's Sonnets Autobiographical? http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/sonnetsautobio.html
[3] SONNET 71 Analysis. http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/71detail.html

脚注

1No longer ... Than you shall hear: 'only so long as you hear.'(到你听到……为止。)
2woe: 'sorrowful.' Its use as an adjective, though now obsolete, is common in Spenser.(“woe”此处意为悲伤的;该词作为形容词的用法常见于斯宾塞的作品,现在已经废弃了。)
3compounded: 'united.'(融为一体。)
4wise world: too wise, that is, to grieve over what is gone.(太聪明了,以至于不会为逝去的东西而伤心。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Post Mortem(死后)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第三二首。诗人希望他的爱友保存他的诗,因为他的诗充满了真实的感情。

作品原文

If thou survive my well-contented1 day
When that churl2 Death my bones with dust shall cover,
And shalt by fortune once more re-survey
These poor rude lines of thy deceased lover3;

Compare them with the bettering of the time,
And though they be outstripp'd by every pen,
Reserve them4 for my love, not for their rhyme5
Exceeded by the height of happier men.

O then vouchsafe me but this loving thought—
'Had my friend's muse grown with this growing age,
A dearer birth than this his love had brought
To march in ranks of better equipage6:

But since he died, and poets better prove,
Theirs for their styles I'll read, his for his love.'

译文

屠岸 译

如果我已经满足,让粗鄙的死
把黄土盖上我骨头,而你还健康,
并且,你偶尔又重新翻阅我的诗——
你已故爱友的粗糙潦草的诗行,

请拿你当代更好的诗句来比较;
尽管每一句都胜过我的作品,
保存我的吧,为我的爱,论技巧——
我不如更加幸福的人们高明。

呵,还望你多赐厚爱,这样想:
“如果我朋友的诗才随时代发展,
他的爱一定会产生更好的诗章,
和更有诗才的行列同步向前:

但自从他一死,诗人们进步了以来,
我读别人的文笔,却读他的爱。”

我的感想

总之我很喜欢这首诗。我觉得它具有一种谦逊而自我怀疑的品质(写诗的人可是莎士比亚本人!),而且具有一种奇异的自限性的魔力。他的预言已经失效了。在这个他的爱友也已经逝去的时代里,人们打开他的诗,主要是读他的文笔,却不常读他的爱。可是这首诗使我发现,莎士比亚毕竟是一个真实的人,有着真挚的感情。

我真的很喜欢这首诗。

找到了一篇分析[1]。可以看看。

参考文献

[1] A Short Analysis of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 32: ‘If thou survive my well-contented day’. https://interestingliterature.com/2017/04/03/a-short-analysis-of-shakespeares-sonnet-32-if-thou-survive-my-well-contented-day/

脚注

1well-contented: the epithet is transferred from the poet, who is quite content to die, to the day of his death.(这一修饰词指的是诗人自己,他满意于死亡了。)
2churl: a word used from early times as the opposite of noble or gentle. Death is no gentleman, for he is quite regardless of people's feelings.(这个词在早些时候被用作贵族或绅士的反义词来使用。死神不是一位绅士,因为他几乎全不在意人们的感情。)
3lover: in the seventeenth century this word had not its present narrow meaning, but was applied to anyone who loved another.(在十七世纪,“lover”这个词的词义还没有现在这么狭隘,可以用于任何相爱的两个人。)
4Reserve them: 'keep them in your possession.'(把它们留在你的身边。)
5rhyme: in the wide sense, 'verses.'(泛指一切诗歌。)
6ranks of better equipage: 'better equipped ranks,' i.e. making a fairer show of poetic ability.(“在更好的队伍中”,即展示出更好的诗才。)