作品基本信息

作品名称:The Happy Heart(称心满意)
作者:Thomas Dekker(托马斯·德克尔)
出版年代:1603
编注:德克尔(Thomas Dekker,1570?-1632),英国剧作家及散文家。这首诗选自他的喜剧《能忍受考验的格里丝尔》[1]

作品原文

Art thou1 poor, yet hast thou golden slumbers?
O sweet content!
Art thou rich, yet is thy mind perplexed?
O punishment!
Dost thou laugh to see how fools are vexed
To add to golden numbers2, golden numbers?
O sweet content! O sweet, O sweet content!
Work apace, apace, apace, apace;
Honest labour bears a lovely face;
Then hey nonny nonny, hey nonny nonny!

Canst drink the waters of the crisped3 spring?
O sweet content!
Swimm'st thou in wealth, yet sink'st in thine own tears?
O punishment!
Then he that patiently want's burden bears
No burden bears, but is a king, a king!
O sweet content! O sweet, O sweet content!
Work apace, apace, apace, apace;
Honest labour bears a lovely face;
Then hey nonny nonny, hey nonny nonny!

译文

戴镏龄 译

你没有钱,却睡得甜丝丝?
哦,知足常乐!
你富裕,莫非却惶惑不安?
哦,惩罚谴责!
愚人为钱上堆钱而忧烦,
你看见是不是觉得这可笑?
哦,知足常乐,知足常常乐!
加快工作呀,加快,加快,
认真干活,就面容可爱;
啷哩,咳,啷哩,咳,啷哩啊啷哩!

泉水涟漪,将它酌来品尝?
哦,知足常乐!
钱里翻滚,又泪水中浸泡?
哦,惩罚谴责!
贫穷的担子咬紧牙根挑,
这种人没负担,是南面王!
哦,知足常乐,知足常常乐!
加快工作呀,加快,加快,
认真干活,就面容可爱;
啷哩,咳,啷哩,咳,啷哩啊啷哩!

我的感想

Prothalamion那里卡了得有一个多月了,除了很忙之外,主要还是因为这首诗太长,读不完。所以先从下一首开始了。

有人(Amy Marcy Cheney Beach)曾经把这首歌改编成曲子。Youtube上有这首歌的演唱版本[2],好像还不难听。不过更神奇的是,我发现这首歌曾经被Beatles(或者更准确的说是Paul McCartney)改编成一首叫"Golden Slumbers / Carry That Weight / The End"的歌,真是令人惊讶……

好吧,其实看了这首诗,我心里还是挺不舒服的,不知道是当时的作者太不食人间烟火,还是现代社会已经彻底的变了。至少现在人们已经不喜欢“没有钱,却睡得好”这种说法了,没有钱,必定要天天焦虑,日日焦虑;而有了钱,心里就有了底气,可以每日睡得安稳了(虽然可能还是会焦虑自己的钱不如别人多)。(我不是说别人,我就是说“新世相”那个公众号)

所以Beatles改编的歌词还是很棒啊……至少感觉稍微更加温暖一些。

Once there was a way,
To get back homeward.
Once there was a way
To get back home.
Sleep, pretty darling,
Dot not cry
And I will sing a lullaby.
Golden slumbers,
Fill your eyes
Smiles await you when you rise
Sleep pretty darling
Do not cry
And I will sing a lullaby.
Once there was a way
To get back homeward
Once there was a way
To get back home
Sleep, pretty darling
Do not cry
And I will sing a lullaby.
Once, there was a way to get back homeward
Once, there was a way to get back home
Sleep, pretty darling, do not cry
And I will sing a lullaby
Boy, you're going to carry that weight,
Carry that weight a long time
Boy, you're going to carry that weight
Carry that weight a long time
I never give you my pillow
I only send you my invitations
And in the middle of the celebrations
I break, I break, I break down
Boy, you're going to carry that weight
Carry that weight a long time
Boy, you're going to carry that weight
Carry that weight a long time
Once, there was a way to get back homeward
Once, there was a way to get back home
Sleep, pretty darling, do not cry
And I will sing a lullaby

参考文献

[1] Patient Grissel. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patient_Grissel
[2] O Sweet Content. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nyu1nTkqxiE
[3] Golden Slumbers / Carry That Weight / The End. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qrDlRsARwk

脚注

1thou: i.e. the reader; the second and fourth lines are exclamations, not addresses.(“你”指的是读者;第二行和第四行是感叹,不是对读者说的话。)
2golden numbers: 'large sums of gold.'(很多金钱。)
3crisped: lit. 'curled,' so 'ruffled.'(卷曲而褶皱的。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Prothalamion
作者:Edmund Spenser(爱德蒙·斯宾塞)
出版年代:1599
编注:此诗选自《皆大欢喜》第二幕第七场,诗中将大自然的善与人类的恶进行了对照。

作品原文

Calm was the day, and through the trembling air
Sweet-breathing Zephyrus1 did softly play—
A gentle spirit, that lightly did delay
Hot Titan's beams, which then did glister fair;
When I (whom sullen care,
Through discontent of my long fruitless stay
In princes' court, and expectation vain
Of idle hopes, which still do fly away
Like empty shadows, did afflict my brain)
Walk'd forth to ease my pain
Along the shore of sliver-streaming Thames;
Whose rutty2 bank, the which his river hems,
Was painted all with variable flowers,
And all the meads adorn'd with dainty gems
Fit to deck maidens' bowers,
And crown their paramours3
Against the bridal day, which is not long4;
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

There in a meadow by the river's side
A flock of nymphs I chanced to espy,
All lovely daughters of the flood thereby5,
With goodly greenish locks all loose untied
As each had been a bride;
And each one had a little wicker basket
Made of fine twigs, entrailed6 curiously,
In which they gather'd flowers to fill their flasket7,
And with fine fingers cropt full feateously8
The tender stalks on high.
Of every sort which in that meadow grew
They gather'd some; the violet, pallid blue,
The little daisy that at evening closes,
The virgin lily and the primrose true,
With store of vermeil9 roses,
To deck their bridegrooms' posies
Against the bridal day, which was not long:
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

With that I saw two swans of goodly hue
Come softly swimming down along the lee10;
Two fairer birds I yet did never see;
The snow which doth the top of Pindus strow
Did never whiter show,
Nor Jove himself, when he a swan would be
For love of Leda, whiter did appear;
Yet Leda was (they say) as white as he,
Yet not so white as these, nor nothing near;
So purely white they were,
That even the gentle stream, the which them bare,
Seem'd foul to them, and bade his billows spare
To wet their silken feathers, lest they might
Soil their fair plumes with water not so fair,
And mar their beauties bright,
That shone as Heaven's light
Against their bridal day, which was not long;
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

Eftsoons11 the nymphs, which now had flowers their fill12,
Ran all in haste to see that silver brood
As they came floating on the crystal flood;
Whom when they saw, they stood amazed still
Their wondering eyes to fill;
Them seem'd13 they never saw a sight so fair
Of fowls, so lovely, that they sure did deem
Them heavenly born, or to be that same pair
Which through the sky draw Venus' silver team;
For sure they did not seem
To be begot of any earthly seed,
But rather angels, or of angels' breed;
Yet were they bred of summer's heat, they say,
In sweetest season, when each flower and weed
The earth did fresh array;
So fresh they seem'd as day,
Even as their bridal day, which was not long:
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

Then forth they all out of their baskets drew
Great store of flowers, the honour of the field,
That to the sense did fragrant odours yield,
All which upon those goodly birds they threw
And all the waves did strew,
That like old Peneus' waters they did seem
When down along by pleasant Tempe's shore
Scatter'd with flowers, through Thessaly they stream,
That they appear, through lilies' plenteous store,
Like a bride's chamber-floor.
Two of those nymphs meanwhile, two garlands bound,
Of freshest flowers which in that mead they found,
The which presenting all in trim array,
Their snowy foreheads therewithal they crown'd;
Whilst one did sing this lay
Prepared against that day,
Against their bridal day, which was not long:
Sweet Thames! run softly, till I end my song.

'Ye gentle birds! the world's fair ornament,
And Heaven's glory, whom this happy hour
Doth lead unto your lovers' blissful bower,
Joy may you have, and gentle heart's content
Of your love's couplement;
And let fair Venus, that is queen of love,
With her heart-quelling son upon you smile,
Whose smile, they say, hath virtue to remove
All love's dislike, and friendship's faulty guile
For ever to assoil.

译文

戴镏龄 译

宁静的日子呀,阵阵清风
轻微地吹拂,在空中飘荡,
大气柔和,使晴空的骄阳<>
明媚温煦,不致烧灼碧空;
我正感不受用,
由于淹留王廷常是失意,
期望终成梦想,无从实现,<>
冀求的东西都徒然飞逝,
无影无踪,心情苦不堪言,
于是散步排遣,
沿着清凌凌的泰晤士河,
两岸上发出稠密的枝柯,
各种奇卉,无不鲜花怒放,
青草地上珠光宝气繁多,
宜于装饰闺房,
插在情人头上,
迎接佳期,屈指就在目下,
可爱的河,轻轻流到歌罢。

河边上呈现出一块草坪,
那儿我瞥见仙女一大群,
好姑娘,在邻近川泽成长,
头上飘散着美丽的青鬓,
好象新人出聘。
她们都携着一只小柳筐,
细条做料子,精工编织成,
用来采集花枝,满满盛装,
纤纤手指,摘取巧妙认真,
顶部嫩的花梗。
草原上这样那样花灿烂,
每样采一些,紫罗兰淡蓝,
黄昏时合上眼睛的雏菊,
以及百合纯洁,樱草烂漫,
嫣红玫瑰成束,
献作新郎礼物,
迎接佳期,屈指就在目下,
可爱的河,轻轻流到歌罢。

接着有漂亮的天鹅一双,<>
飘飘然在水上顺流下游,
平生初见,最美的鸟两头,
雪洒在坪达山的高峰上,<>
输掉白的光芒;
宙父变做天鹅追求妮黛,
也比不上这对赛粉欺银;<>
论白,宙父、妮黛难分好坏,
但是都难和这一双接近,
她们异常白净。
轻柔的流水,负载着她们,
似嫌形秽,戒浪花莫溅喷
她们的洁羽,那样就必然
使浑水给她们带来污痕,
让太阳般美颜
因此添上缺陷,
迎接佳期,屈指就在目下,
可爱的河,轻轻流到歌罢。

仙女采花不久,收获丰满,
奔去看这对洁白的俦<>侣,
正泛泛而来,清水上漂浮,
姑娘见了,无不感到茫然,
惊得直瞪两眼;
这样的美禽,似从未见过,
多可爱呀,一定生在天堂,
或是给爱神挽车的双鹅,<>
挽她的车穿过云霄之上;
她们绝对不象
我们这个尘世间的产物,
而是天使,或是同一种族。
据说她们是在夏季出生,
和煦时节,花草枝叶扶疏,
大地新装披身,
好似旭日东升,
恰似佳日,屈指就在目下,
可爱的河,轻轻流到歌罢。

仙女从筐里取出许多花,
这些都是田野上的光辉,
发散出扑鼻的阵阵香味;
她们把花撒向好鸟身上,
水波吐秀流芳,
象泌罗斯江水流声活活,<>
沿着丹丕的可喜山谷间,
满载花枝,从帖撒利流过;
有数不尽的百合花,乍看,
象香闺的铺板。
这时其中两位仙女挑选

我的感想

[1]

参考文献

[1] As You Like It. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/As_You_Like_It

脚注

1Zephyrus: 'the west wind.'(西风。)
2rutty: 'abounding in ruts.'(查词典,“rutty”一词为“遍地车辙的”之义,但看译文,此处似乎译作“有很多枝干”的意思了?)
3paramours: 'lovers'.(情人们。)
4is not long: 'is close at hand.'(近在眼前了。)
5the flood thereby: 'the stream which ran beside them.'(他们身边流过的小溪。)
6entrailed: 'entwined.'(相互缠绕的。)
7flasket: 'a long shallow basket' (Johnson); the word is a diminutive of 'flask.'(长而浅的篮子;对“flask”的爱称。)
8full feateously: 'very skillfully or elegantly.'(非常灵巧而优雅地。)
9vermeil: a poetic form of 'vermilion.'(“朱红色”的另一种写法。)
10the lee: here and in L 115 below, Spenser uses this word for 'stream' or 'current.'(在此处和下面的第115行,斯宾塞用这个词来表示“溪流”或“水流”之义。)
11Eftsoon: 'soon after.'(很快。)
12had flowers their fill: 'flowers, as many as they wanted.'(已经拿了尽可能多的花朵。)
13Them seem'd: 'it seemed to them.'(在她们看来。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Pack, clouds, away, and welcome day
作者:Thomas Heywood(托马斯·海伍德)
出版年代:1608
编注:海伍德(Thomas Heywood,1570?-1641),英国剧作家。本诗选自他以罗马神话为题材写成的戏剧《鲁克丽丝受辱记》第四幕第六场。

作品原文

Pack, clouds, away, and welcome day,
With night we banish sorrow;
Sweet air blow soft, mount lark aloft
To give my Love good-morrow1!
Wings from the wind to please her mind
Notes from the lark I'll borrow;
Bird prune thy wing, nightingale sing,
To give my Love good-morrow;
To give my Love good-morrow
Notes from them all I'll borrow.

Wake from thy nest, Robin-red-breast,
Sing birds in every furrow;
And from each bill, let music shrill
Give my fair Love good-morrow!
Blackbird and thrush in every bush,
Stare2, linnet, and, cock-sparrow,
You pretty elves, amongst yourselves
Sing my fair Love good-morrow!
To give my Love good-morrow
Sing birds in every furrow!

译文

戴镏龄 译

云,散开吧,迎接白天,
夜尽了,驱走忧伤;
朝气轻吹,云雀升起,
给我爱早安送上!
我要借云雀的歌声,
趁风娱她的心肠;
鸟儿整翅,流莺请啭,
给我爱早安送上!
要借大家的歌声,
给我爱早安送上。

知更鸟从巢里醒起,
田沟上鸟语响亮;
每张鸟喙鸣声清新,
给我爱早安送上!
枝头的乌鸦和画眉,
八哥、红鸟、麻雀郎,
可爱的小精灵们,大家
给我爱早安送上!
田沟上鸟语响亮,
给我爱早安送上。

我的感想

这次又可以说很多东西了。这首诗倒是很欢快,但是看到《鲁克丽丝受辱记》这个来源,就觉得哪里不太对劲。

托马斯·海伍德

海伍德是一位著名的英国剧作家、演员和文学家。他的主要贡献是在伊丽莎白一世晚期和詹姆斯一世时期的剧院里上演的剧本。他最知名的作品是一部家庭悲剧,《被善意所杀的女人》(A Woman Killed with Kindness),这部悲剧最初上演于1603年。他是一位多产的作家,据说创作了220部戏剧,不过现在只有一小部分留下来了。很可惜,The Rape of Lucrece 在维基百科上并没有词条。[1]

《鲁克丽丝受辱记》

总之据说是根据莎士比亚的作品改编的。我找到了一个似乎是古代拼写的版本[2],不过没有分场和幕,非常难看。随后我又在Internet Archive上找到了现代拼写的版本[3],还有一部分介绍。至于这个剧本的全部内容,我觉得可以开一篇新文章了。(现在还没写完,如果写完了会补上)简单来说,它的剧情和莎士比亚的《鲁克丽丝受辱记》基本类似,但是扩展了很多额外的情节;剧本以塞克斯图斯(即塔昆,不过此剧本中称他为Sextus,所以姑且换个称呼)和布鲁图斯在决斗中双双被杀结束。

这首诗选自第四幕第六场,此时塞克斯图斯刚刚从柯拉廷城堡中仓皇逃出,次日清早,众人在阿狄亚城前时,柯拉廷唱起了这首歌。听起来实在是太过讽刺了。大概是强调了一种悲剧的氛围吧。

参考文献

[1] Thomas Heywood. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thomas_Heywood
[2] The rape of Lucrece a true Roman tragedie. https://quod.lib.umich.edu/e/eebo/A03244.0001.001/1:3?rgn=div1;view=fulltext
[3] Thomas Heywood. https://archive.org/details/heywood00heywiala

脚注

1good-morrow: 'good morning.'(早上好。)
2Stare: 'starling,' which is a diminutive of the former.(“stare”是对椋鸟的爱称。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Cupid and Campaspe(爱神和康帕丝)
作者:John Lyly(约翰·黎里)
出版年代:1584
编注:黎里(John Lyly,1554?-1806),英国文艺复兴时代的剧作家,他第一个用散文体代替诗体创作喜剧。本诗选自喜剧《康帕丝》第三幕第五场,诗中形象而活泼地描绘了美和爱的魅力,这种魅力甚至支配了爱神。

作品原文

Cupid and my Campaspe play'd
At cards for kisses; Cupid paid:
He stakes his quiver, bow, and arrows,
His mother's doves, and team of sparrows;
Loses them too; then down he throws
The coral of his lip, the rose
Growing on's1 cheek (but none knows how);
With these, the crystal2 of his brow,
And then the dimple of his chin;
All these did my Campaspe win:
At last he set3 her both his eyes—
She won, and Cupid blind did rise.
O Love! has she done this to thee?
What shall, alas! become of me?

译文

戴镏龄 译

爱神和康帕丝斗牌4
赌接吻,爱神被击败;
他又赌箭筒,弓和矢,
母亲的麻雀和鸽子;5
输了,摔下嘴唇珊瑚,
两颊上的玫瑰花株,
泛起的那无名面红;
加上眉宇晶亮玲珑,
还有下巴上的酒涡,
通通被康帕丝赢走。
最后,他拿两眼去赌,
又输了,他变成矇瞽6
爱神,她待你是这样?
哎,什么是我的下场?

我的感想

这首诗可聊的东西又非常的多而庞杂,只能慢慢说了,看来要花去今晚的不少时间。(虽然明天还有重要的事情,但是先娱乐一下再说……)

约翰·黎里其人

约翰·黎里[1]现在似乎不是很有名了(而且这首诗在网上也没有什么人讨论),不过可以从维基百科看出,他是个当时很重要的剧作家和作家,而且风格还被命名了,叫做“绮丽体”(euphuism)。这听起来就很浮夸了,是人们通常会轻视的风格类型。不过,看了维基之后,我发现,他这么写是意有所指的。(不过这部分来自剧本的维基,之后再说)

生平实在是懒得(或者说没时间)翻译了。粗粗看了几眼,发现了一点有趣的东西。

After he left Oxford, where he had the reputation of "a noted wit", Lyly seems to have attached himself to Lord Burghley. "This noble man", he writes in the Glasse for Europe, in the second part of Euphues (1580), "I found so ready being but a straunger to do me good, that neyther I ought to forget him, neyther cease to pray for him, that as he hath the wisdom of Nestor, so he may have the age, that having the policies of Ulysses he may have his honor, worthy to lyve long, by whom so many lyve in quiet, and not unworthy to be advaunced by whose care so many have been preferred."

黎里在此处狂热地赞美了伯利勋爵(Lord Burghley)。实际上,他就是威廉·塞西尔,之前提到过的维尔的抚养者兼岳父。之后黎里似乎还和维尔闹了一点别扭。这可真是非常有趣了。

后来,总之,黎里的剧本对莎士比亚的剧作,特别是浪漫喜剧,起到了很大的影响。

康帕丝

传说中,康帕丝是亚历山大大帝的情妇。古代被认为最杰出的画家阿培里兹(Apelles)为她画像。老普林尼在《自然史》中声称,接下来发生了这样的事情:亚历山大看到了肖像惊人的美丽,意识到画家比他更能欣赏康帕丝的美丽,也更爱她;于是便留下肖像,却将康帕丝让给阿培里兹。当然,这整件事基本都是传说。后来康帕丝成为了文学作品中情妇的代名词。[2]

我对这个故事的看法是:嗯,除了又一次感慨老普林尼的不靠谱之外,我觉得亚历山大和阿培里兹都没怎么尊重康帕丝,不过这样就又转到女权话题了。当然,这个故事提出了一个哲学问题:创作者的地位是否一定高于欣赏者?或者不如先问,这个故事中的画家到底能不能算是一位创作者?他能够画出康帕丝惊人的美,是因为他的技艺高超,因为他深爱绘画的对象,还是因为康帕丝本人太美了,而他的画只是反映出了这一特质?这种描摹者和被描摹对象的关系是否是正常的?唉,在这些问题中,康帕丝都是完全的客体,与一株漂亮的植物无异,真是令人感到不适。

《康帕丝》的剧情

这部剧本没有太多逻辑和剧情可言(据说是这样的),它的可取之处主要在于华丽的语言。总之,发生了这样的事:除了上面的传说之外,亚历山大还和第欧根尼、柏拉图、亚里士多德等哲学家探讨了许多问题。不过,至少康帕丝不再是完全的植物了:她也爱上了阿培里兹。亚历山大成全了他们,然后继续征战去了。

黎里在《康帕丝》中没有进行任何道德或伦理说教——因而突破了早期戏剧的“道德剧”(morality play)传统。和他之后的大部分剧作也不同的是,《康帕丝》也避开了讽喻。事实上,《康帕丝》是一个纯粹地为娱乐而讲述的浪漫历史故事。黎里对中世纪思维模式的这种背离为之后的(且更好的)作家提供了一种新的模板。这部剧本被称为当时的“第一部浪漫戏剧”。[3]

分析

我只在雅虎问答[4]上找到了一篇普通的分析,大意和这首诗的编注相同:

  • 爱神为了赢得康帕丝的吻,甚至愿意失去自己身上神性的部分
  • 连爱神都会屈服于爱的魅力,我这种凡人当然对爱更无能为力了
  • 英国贵族女性一直都很喜欢打牌

我倒是觉得,说“连爱神都会屈服于爱的魅力”这种话,虽然和神话是符合的,却不太符合逻辑:爱神本身是“爱”的人格化,那堕入爱情的爱神算是什么呢?对此,我的看法是,爱神代表了一种更加理性、更加神圣的爱,而他屈服于的这种“爱”是感性的痴迷和疯狂。(这听起来像是《会饮》里的分析了,什么有两个爱神之类的。)当然也可以说,把爱神作为主角之一只是为了强调爱情的魅力极其的大。

实际上,我从欢快活泼的表象中看到了疯狂、恐怖和残忍。疯狂上面已经说过了。至于恐怖……丢掉眼睛难道还不算恐怖吗?至少在我的想象中,这是令人惧怕的。最糟糕的是,康帕丝要这些东西做什么呢?爱神身上所有美的部分,甚至包括眼睛……如果她是需要小美人鱼声音的邪恶巫婆,那这倒是可以理解;但她已经非常美丽了,拿走这些,似乎只是为了在赌博中证明自己的美,是一种纯粹的残忍。或者说,诗人内心中认为女性都是这样残忍的,她们会玩弄别人的感情而不自知。

这些分析大概太阴暗了。事实上,之所以会有这种想法,是因为这首诗让我想起了王尔德的《快乐王子》。王子失去了他的眼睛、剑柄和身上覆盖的金叶子,但那是为了帮助穷人;康帕丝是为了什么呢?但是,即使快乐王子的行为更合理,这个童话仍然让我感到非常不适。我想了很久,但是仍然不知道该如何表达,不妨先算了吧,已经快凌晨三点了。

参考文献

[1] John Lyly. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lyly
[2] Campaspe. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaspe
[3] Campaspe (play). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Campaspe_(play)
[4] Can anyone tell me some literary critiques of this poem. https://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071110080625AARalD8&guccounter=1#

脚注

1on's: 'on his.'
2crystal: 'transparent clearness.'(透明清澈。)
3set: 'staked.'(赌上)
4爱神指维纳斯之子丘比特(Cupid);康帕丝(Campaspe,又译作坎巴斯帕)传说是古希腊亚历山大皇帝的爱妃,以美貌著称。——译者
5麻雀和鸽子等是献给维纳斯的鸟,为她拉车,此外,还有燕子和天鹅。——译者
6矇瞽(méng gǔ),盲人。

作品基本信息

作品名称:A Renunciation(死心断念)
作者:Edward Vere(爱德华·维尔)
出版年代:1812
编注:维尔(Edward Vere,1550-1604),英国贵族诗人,世袭牛津伯爵。

作品原文

If women could be fair, and yet not fond1,
Or that2 their love were firm, not fickle still,
I would not marvel that they make men bond3
By service long to purchase their good will;
But when I see how frail those creatures are,
I muse that men forget themselves so far.

To mark the choice they make, and how they change,
How oft from Phoebus they do flee to Pan;
Unsettled still, like haggards4 wild they range,
These gentle birds that fly from man to man;
Who would not scorn and shake them from the fist5,
And let them fly, fair fools, which way they list?

Yet for disport6 we fawn and flatter both,
To pass the time when nothing else can please,
And train them to our lure7 with subtle oath,
Till, weary of their wiles, ourselves we ease8;
And then we say when we their fancy try9,
To play with fools, O what a fool was I!

译文

戴镏龄 译

假如女人漂亮而不愚蠢,
或是爱情专一而又坚定,
毫不奇怪,这会使得男人
对她们效忠,买她们的心;
当我发见她们意志不坚,
我慨叹男人也行为失检。

她们选定对象,却又变更,
从漂亮张三,到丑怪李四;10
永远无常,野鹰一般飞腾,
是驯顺的鸟,却逢人追驰;
谁瞧得起她们,留在手上,
不让漂亮蠢货任意飘荡?

为了取乐,我们奉承低头,
不妨消磨时间,趁此排遣,
并用诡誓引诱她们上钩,
到厌腻她们诡诈,给摔开;
试过她们的风情,我们说,
玩弄傻货,自己何等傻货!

我的感想

这首诗本身没有什么可圈可点的地方。物化和贬低女性这个就不说了。似乎这首诗和上一首《The Unfaithful Shepherdess》,都是出自威廉·伯德的乐谱集中的歌词,不过这一首来自《Psalmes, Sonets and Songs》[1],当时也属于作者不明的那一类。同样地,我也在网上找到了这首歌的一个演唱版本[2],并不难听,不过录制得不好。

一位名为Steven May的研究者认为这首诗可能是维尔所作的[3]。看起来编著者似乎认同了这种观点。这位第十七代牛津伯爵倒是一个很有趣的人。他来自一个古老的家庭,父亲早逝,随后伊丽莎白一世成为了他的监护人,并将他安排在威廉·塞西尔(William Cecil)家中居住。他后来娶了塞西尔的女儿安妮,生了五个孩子,却在拒绝承认第一个孩子是他的之后与她分居五年。维尔是一个出色的马术家,曾经在意大利和法国四处旅行。他是在伊丽莎白的宫廷中最开始撰写情诗的人之一,并因其剧作受到赞誉,虽然他的剧本没有流传到现在。由于维尔对文学、宗教、音乐和医学方面的作品的慷慨赞助,有许多作品是题献给他的。他也赞助了很多剧团、音乐家、杂技演员和动物。

在1580年左右,维尔使得女王的一位宫女(Maid of honour)Anne Vavasour怀孕,这导致他被驱逐出宫廷,也导致了他的随从与Vavasour的叔叔之间激烈的街头斗殴。在1583年,维尔回到了女王身边,但已经失去了晋升的机会。在1586年,女王给予维尔一笔1000英镑的年费,用来缓解他的铺张浪费和将能带来收入的土地为快钱而卖掉而导致的财务危机。在他的妻子去世后,他娶了Elizabeth Trentham,并生下了唯一的儿子,亨利·德·维尔。他于1604年去世,此时他已经挥霍掉了大部分继承的地产。[4]

总的来说,这是一位有一定个人魅力和才华,但是缺乏节制,挥霍无度的人。不过,最有趣的还是,有种理论认为,他才是莎士比亚作品的真实作者——他们认为,莎士比亚这个人确实是存在的,但他的教育背景和生活经历与作品并不匹配,因此作者另有其人。这一理论几乎没有任何历史证据的支持,而是通过阴谋论来构建的,大部分严肃的研究者并不认同此说;但大众对于这一理论的兴趣持续高涨。[5]我没有更深入地去了解这一理论,不过听上去脑洞还真是不小。

参考文献

[1] Psalmes, Sonets and Songs (Byrd, William). http://cn.imslp.org/wiki/Psalmes,_Sonets_and_Songs_(Byrd,\_William)
[2] William Byrd - If Women Could Be Fair. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gjCHiiyGodc
[3] Woman's Changeableness. https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Woman's_Changeableness
[4] Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_de_Vere,_17th_Earl_of_Oxford
[5] Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oxfordian_theory_of_Shakespeare_authorship

脚注

1fond: 'foolish.'
2Or that: 'if that' is often found for 'if'. If the subordinate sentence contains two clauses, the second is often introduced by 'that' alone.(“if that”经常被用于代替“if”。如果同时有两个if从句,第二个从句通常只由“that”引导,省略“if”。)
3bond: 'whether we be bond or free.'(无论我们是被奴役还是自由。)
4haggards 'whild hawks.'(野鹰。)
5from the fist: where the hawk was carried in the mediaeval sport of hawking.(在中世纪的鹰猎活动中,鹰是站在拳头上的。)
6disport: 'sport.'(运动。)
7lure: another hawking metaphor; a lure was a bunch of feathers used to recall the bird to the falconer.(另一个与鹰猎相关的隐喻:诱饵是一捆羽毛,用来将鹰召回到鹰猎者的身边。)
8ourselves we ease: 'we relieve ourselves of them.'(我们摆脱了她们。)
9when we their fancy try: 'when we make trial of their love.'(当我们试验她们的爱时。)
10此行原诗分别用希腊神话中的太阳神(Phoebus)和潘神(Pan)比喻美男子和相貌丑陋的男人。——译者

作品基本信息

作品名称:To His Love(致爱人)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎士比亚十四行诗第一八首,诗人在这首诗里表达了“唯有文字可以同时间抗衡”的思想。

作品原文

Shall I compare thee to a summer's day?
Thou art more lovely and more temperate:
Rough winds do shake the darling buds of May;
And summer's lease hath all too short a date;

Sometimes too hot the eye of heaven shines.
And often is his gold complexion dimm'd;
And every fair from fair1 sometime declines,
By chance, or nature's changing course, untrimm'd2.

But thy eternal summer shall not fade
Nor lose possession of that fair thou owest3;
Nor shall death brag thou wanderest in his shade,
When in eternal line to time4 thou growest;

So long as men can breathe, or eyes can see,
So long lives this, and this gives life to thee.

译文

戴镏龄 译

我怎样能把你比作夏天?
你比它更可爱也更温和;
五月的娇蕾有暴风震颠,
夏季的寿命很短就度过。

有时候当空照耀着烈日,
又往往它的光采转阴淡;
每件美艳终把美艳消失,
遭受运数和时序的摧残。

你永恒的夏季却永不凋零,
而且长把你的美艳保存;
死神难夸你踏它的倩影,
只因永恒的诗和你同春。

天地间能有人鉴赏文采,
这首诗就流传教你永在。

我的感想

啊,这首诗大概是莎士比亚最有名的十四行诗之一了。然后我一时也没有什么好说的……[1]

TODO

参考文献

[1] Sonnet 18. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonnet_18

脚注

1from fair: 'from fairness.'
2untrimm'd: the prefix un- is either negative, as in 'unmoved,' or privative, signifying the reversal of an action, as in 'unfold.' Here it has the latter force; to trim is to make neat, so to untrim is to disarrange.
3owest: this was the originally the same word as to 'own' and meant to 'have.'
4to time: i.e. to all time.