作品基本信息

作品名称:Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第八七首。译者原有这样的译解:“诗人向爱友告别,并且撤销了他们以前因错误而订的盟约,但诗人似乎仍希望能从这种完全的解约而引起爱友的回心转意。”

作品原文

Farewell! thou art too dear for my possessing,
And like enough thou know'st thy estimate:
The charter1 of thy worth gives thee releasing;
My bonds in thee are all determinate.

For how do I hold thee but thy granting?
And for that riches where is my deserving?
The cause of this fair gift in me is wanting,
And so my patent2 back again is swerving.

Thyself thou gav'st, thy own worth then not knowing,
Or me, to whom thou gav'st it, else mistaking;
So thy great gift, upon misprision growing3,
Comes home again, on better judgement making.

Thus have I had thee as a dream doth flatter;
In sleep, a king; but waking, no such matter.

译文

屠岸 译

再会!你太贵重了,我没法保有你,
你也多半明白你自己的价值:
你的才德给予你自由的权利;
我跟你订的盟约就到此为止。

你不答应,我怎能把你占有?
对于这样的福气,我哪儿相配?
我没有接受这美好礼物的理由,
给我的特许证因而就掉头而归。

你当时不知道自己的身价有多大,
或者是把我看错了,才给我深情;
所以,你这份厚礼,送错了人家,
终于回家了,算得是明智的决定。

我曾经有过你,象一场阿谀的迷梦,
我在那梦里称了王,醒来一场空。

我的感想

真的好惨。就现代的想法来看,那就是恋爱双方中一方前进得太快了,另一方跟不上;或者说,一方本来是年轻貌美,善解人意的,另一方配不上,却因为种种原因还是在一起了。不相配的人是不可能长久下去的。当然,这样也实在是太自卑了。

当然曾经也是很感动的。把这么优秀的自己送给了我,真是一份重礼啊。总之这首诗苦乐参半,其实也没有想象中那么惨。

最后两句写得很顺耳,节奏很棒。

刚才阅读了一些其他的解读。不过恕我直言,这里的爱人恐怕还是那位可爱的年轻男性。

TODO(我以前写的都是什么破烂解析?)

参考文献

脚注

1charter: properly a written grant of rights by the Sovereign; here his lady's worth had given her such rights. (实际上是统治者对权利作出的书面保证;此处,这位夫人的价值给了她这样的权力。其实我也没看懂这个注解。)
2patent: a right similarly granted to the exclusive enjoyment of some privilege.
3upon misprision growing: 'being based upon a misconception of your own value.' The word is derived from the verb to misprize, and must not be confounded with the legal term misprision (akin to the French méprendre), meaning a wrongful act or omission.

作品基本信息

作品名称:Post Mortem(死后)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第三二首。诗人希望他的爱友保存他的诗,因为他的诗充满了真实的感情。

作品原文

If thou survive my well-contented1 day
When that churl2 Death my bones with dust shall cover,
And shalt by fortune once more re-survey
These poor rude lines of thy deceased lover3;

Compare them with the bettering of the time,
And though they be outstripp'd by every pen,
Reserve them4 for my love, not for their rhyme5
Exceeded by the height of happier men.

O then vouchsafe me but this loving thought—
'Had my friend's muse grown with this growing age,
A dearer birth than this his love had brought
To march in ranks of better equipage6:

But since he died, and poets better prove,
Theirs for their styles I'll read, his for his love.'

译文

屠岸 译

如果我已经满足,让粗鄙的死
把黄土盖上我骨头,而你还健康,
并且,你偶尔又重新翻阅我的诗——
你已故爱友的粗糙潦草的诗行,

请拿你当代更好的诗句来比较;
尽管每一句都胜过我的作品,
保存我的吧,为我的爱,论技巧——
我不如更加幸福的人们高明。

呵,还望你多赐厚爱,这样想:
“如果我朋友的诗才随时代发展,
他的爱一定会产生更好的诗章,
和更有诗才的行列同步向前:

但自从他一死,诗人们进步了以来,
我读别人的文笔,却读他的爱。”

我的感想

总之我很喜欢这首诗。我觉得它具有一种谦逊而自我怀疑的品质(写诗的人可是莎士比亚本人!),而且具有一种奇异的自限性的魔力。他的预言已经失效了。在这个他的爱友也已经逝去的时代里,人们打开他的诗,主要是读他的文笔,却不常读他的爱。可是这首诗使我发现,莎士比亚毕竟是一个真实的人,有着真挚的感情。

我真的很喜欢这首诗。

找到了一篇分析[1]。可以看看。

参考文献

[1] A Short Analysis of Shakespeare’s Sonnet 32: ‘If thou survive my well-contented day’. https://interestingliterature.com/2017/04/03/a-short-analysis-of-shakespeares-sonnet-32-if-thou-survive-my-well-contented-day/

脚注

1well-contented: the epithet is transferred from the poet, who is quite content to die, to the day of his death.(这一修饰词指的是诗人自己,他满意于死亡了。)
2churl: a word used from early times as the opposite of noble or gentle. Death is no gentleman, for he is quite regardless of people's feelings.(这个词在早些时候被用作贵族或绅士的反义词来使用。死神不是一位绅士,因为他几乎全不在意人们的感情。)
3lover: in the seventeenth century this word had not its present narrow meaning, but was applied to anyone who loved another.(在十七世纪,“lover”这个词的词义还没有现在这么狭隘,可以用于任何相爱的两个人。)
4Reserve them: 'keep them in your possession.'(把它们留在你的身边。)
5rhyme: in the wide sense, 'verses.'(泛指一切诗歌。)
6ranks of better equipage: 'better equipped ranks,' i.e. making a fairer show of poetic ability.(“在更好的队伍中”,即展示出更好的诗才。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:That time of year thou mayst in me behold
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第七三首。

作品原文

That time of year thou may'st in me be behold
When yellow leaves, or none, or few, do hang
Upon those boughs which shake against the cold
Bare ruin'd choirs, where late the sweet birds sang.

In me thou see'st the twilight of such day
As after sunset fadeth in the west,
Which by and by black night doth take away,
Death's second self, that seals up all in rest.

In me thou see'st the glowing of such fire1,
That on the ashes of his youth doth lie
As the death-bed whereon it must expire,
Consumed with2 that which it was nourish'd by:

—This thou perceiv'st, which makes thy love more strong,
To love that well which thou must leave ere long.

译文

屠岸 译

你从我身上能看到这个时令:
黄叶落光了,或者还剩下几片
没脱离那乱打冷颤的一簇簇枝梗——
不再有好鸟歌唱的荒凉唱诗坛。

你从我身上能看到这样的傍晚:
夕阳的回光沉入了西方的天际,
死神的化身——黑夜,慢慢出现,
挤走黄昏,把一切封进了安息。

你从我身上能看到这张火焰:
它躺在自己青春的灰烬上燃烧,
象躺在临终的床上,一息奄奄,
跟供它养料的燃料一同毁灭掉。

看出了这个,你的爱会更加坚贞,
好好地爱着你快要失去的爱人!

我的感想

我又想不动了……[1]

TODO

参考文献

[1] Sonnet 73: That time of year thou mayst in me behold. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/45099/sonnet-73-that-time-of-year-thou-mayst-in-me-behold

脚注

1such fire That, etc. : in strict grammar 'that' should be 'as.' his=its, referring to 'fire.'
2Consumed with: i.e. 'together with'; fire and fuel disappear together.

作品基本信息

作品名称:True Love(真正的爱)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第一一六首,诗人宣称真正的爱可以征服时间。

作品原文

Let me not to the marriage of true minds
Admit1 impediments. Love is not love
Which alters when it alteration finds,
Or bends with the remover2 to remove:—

O no! it is an ever-fixéd mark
That looks on tempests, and is never shaken;
It is the star to every wandering bark,
Whose worth's unknown, although his height be taken3.

Love's not Time's fool4, though rosy lips and cheeks
Within his bending sickle's5 compass come;
Love alters not with his brief hours and weeks,
But bears it out6 ev'n to the edge of doom:—

If this be error, and upon me proved,
I never writ, nor no man7 ever loved.

译文

屠岸 译

让我承认,两颗真心的结合
是阻止不了的。爱算不得爱,
要是人家变心了,它也变得,
或者人家改道了,它也快改:——

不呵!爱是永远固定的标志,
它正视风暴,永远也不会动摇;
爱是一颗星,一切迷途的船只
都靠它引路,把它当无价之宝。

爱不是时间的玩偶,虽然红颜
到头来总不被时间的镰刀遗漏;
爱绝不跟随短促的韶光改变,
就到灭亡的边缘,也不低头:——

假如我这话真错了,真不可信赖,
算我没写过,算爱从来不存在!

我的感想

“算我没写过”什么鬼啦……再次放个quotation在这……[1]

TODO

参考文献

[1] Shakespeare, William. Sonnet 116. Ed. Amanda Mabillard. Shakespeare Online. 8 Dec. 2012. http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/116detail.html.

脚注

1Let me not … Admit: 'May I never own that there are.'
2bends with the remover, etc. : 'is disposed to draw back from one who is himself drawing back.'
3although his height be taken: the position of the star in the sky when accurately taken may serve as a guide to the mariner, who however knows nothing of the astrological significance of the star.
4Time's fool: 'the dupe of Time.'
5bending sickle: Time is generally represented as a mower with a curved scythe.
6bears it out: 'endures without giving way.'
7nor no man: in 16th and 17th century English the double negative did not produce an affirmative.

作品基本信息

作品名称:The Unchangeable(永不变心)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第一〇九首,表现了诗人对他的爱友忠贞不渝的爱。

作品原文

O never say that I was false of heart,
Though absence seem'd my flame to qualify:
As easy might I from myself depart
As from my soul, which in thy breast doth lie;

That is my home of love; if I have ranged,
Like him that travels, I return again,
Just1 to the time, not with the time exchanged2,
So that myself bring water for my stain.

Never believe, though in my nature reign'd
All frailties that besiege all kinds of blood,3
That it could so preposterously be stain'd4
To leave for nothing all thy sum of good:

For nothing this wide universe I call,
Save thou, my rose: in it thou art my all.

译文

屠岸 译

啊!请无论如何别说我负心,
虽然我好象被离别减少了热力。
我不能离开你胸中的我的灵魂,
正如我也离不了自己的肉体:

你的胸膛是我的爱的家:我已经
旅人般流浪过,现在是重回家园;
准时而到,也没有随时光而移情,——
我自己带水来洗涤自己的污点。

虽然我的性情中含有一切人
都有的弱点,可千万别相信我会
如此荒谬地玷污自己的性情,
竟为了空虚而抛弃你全部优美;

我说,广大的世界是空空如也,
其中只有你,玫瑰呵!是我的一切。

我的感想

还是翻译一点东西吧。

我们可以感受到语调中的自信和独立——这种语调只出现在少数几首十四行诗中。诗人表明,他对自己朋友的感情在自己离开伦敦的时候变冷了,很可能是在和他的表演公司(the Chamberlain's Men)在1594年的巡演期间。在第9-10行中,诗人承认,“reign'd/All frailties that besiege all kinds of blood”,表明有其他的人激起了他的热情。如果读一下第110首十四行诗,这一点会更加明显,因为诗人在里面承认,他的不重视使得他需要重新获得年轻人的依赖:“These blenches gave my heart another youth”(第7行)。这一主题延续到了第111-120首十四行诗,诗人用许多词汇描述了自己的不当行为:“stain”和“frailties”(109),“offences”(110),“harmful deeds”和“infection”(111),“shames”(112),“diseased”(118),“transgression”(120),等等。
很多学者相信,莎士比亚和他的亲爱的朋友(很可能是南安普顿伯爵)的关系超出了柏拉图式的范畴,很少有其他的十四行诗能像第109-120首那样为这一论调提供证据。虽然诗人爽快地承认了自己的“stain”,他坚持认为,通过自己犯过的错误,他对自己的“rose”的爱情被增强了。虽然第109首诗算是一篇道歉,但诗人并不是在气球原谅。我们找到的实际上是一篇“矫揉造作的温和赞扬,也许是一篇告别演说”。[1]

研究者真厉害,我感觉他们都能发掘出莎士比亚和他的朋友的打情骂俏的细节了。

参考文献

[1] SONNET 109. http://www.shakespeare-online.com/sonnets/109detail.html

脚注

1Just: 'punctually'.
2exchanged: 'changed,' 'altered'—an obsolete sense.
3all kinds of blood: 'people of different temperaments.'
4so stain'd To leave, etc. : i.e. 'as to leave.'

作品基本信息

作品名称:A Consolation(安慰)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:此诗系莎氏十四行诗第二九首,歌颂了爱的伟大力量。诗人一想到他所爱的人,满腹的愤懑和怀旧的哀思都消失了。

作品原文

When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes
I all alone beweep my outcast state,
And trouble deaf heaven with my bootless cries,
And look upon myself, and curse my fate;

Wishing me like to one more rich in hope,
Featured1 like him, like him with friend possest,
Desiring this man's art, and that man's scope,
With what I most enjoy contented least;2

Yet in these thoughts myself almost despising,
Haply I think on Thee—and then my state,
Like to the lark at break of day arising
From sullen earth, sings hymns at heaven's gate;

For thy sweet love remember's such wealth brings,
That then I scorn to change my state with kings.

译文

屠岸 译

我一旦失去了幸福,又遭人白眼,
就独自哭泣,怨人家把我抛弃,
白白地用哭喊来麻烦聋耳的苍天,
又看看自己,只痛恨时运不济,

愿自己象人家那样:或前程远大,
或一表人才,或胜友如云广交谊,
想有这人的权威,这人的才华,
于自己平素最得意的,倒最不满意;

但在这几乎是看轻自己的思想里,
我偶尔想到了你呵,——我的心怀
顿时象破晓的云雀从阴郁的大地
冲上了天门,歌唱起赞美诗来;

我记着你的甜爱,就是珍宝,
教我不屑把处境跟帝王对调。

我的感想

哎呀,我感觉我都想不动了,只能读一读别人的分析……

比较值得一读的是一些我没有注意到的用典。据说第3-4行引用的是圣经旧约里的《约伯记》,约伯向上帝祈祷,却没有回应。诗人发现自己也处在相同的境遇中:人格化的天堂就是上帝,而他现在聋了,使得诗人的哭喊毫无用处。约伯也在失去上帝的恩宠之后诅咒自己,这和诅咒自己命运的诗人也很类似。[1]

不过我最想吐槽的一点是,请问您想有的是谁的才华哇,我立刻去读他的诗……

参考文献

[1] Shakespeare's Sonnets Summary and Analysis of Sonnet 29 - "When in disgrace with fortune and men's eyes". https://www.gradesaver.com/shakespeares-sonnets/study-guide/summary-sonnet-29-when-in-disgrace-with-fortune-and-mens-eyes

脚注

1Featured: 'formed,' 'shaped,' with reference to life rather than the face. (此处指的与其说是面容,不如说是人生。)
2I. e.: those occupations which generally give him pleasure are least able to satisfy him now. (这些平时会给他带来乐趣的场合不那么能令他满足了。)

作品基本信息

作品名称:Time and Love(时间与爱)
作者:William Shakespeare(威廉·莎士比亚)
出版年代:1609
编注:威廉·莎士比亚(William Shakespeare,1564-1616)是英国文艺复兴时期伟大的戏剧家、诗人,生于富裕市民家庭,当过剧场杂役、演员。他一生作品浩繁,著有剧本37部、长诗2首,十四行诗154首。《时间与爱》系他的十四行诗第六四首。莎氏的十四行诗均无标题,《时间与爱》以及本书中莎氏十四行诗前的标题都由原编者所加。

作品原文

When I have seen by Time's fell1 hand defaced
The rich proud cost2 of out-worn buried age;
When sometime lofty3 towers I see down-razed,
And brass eternal4 slave to mortal rage;

When I have seen the hungry ocean gain
Advantage on the kingdom of the shore,
And the firm soil win of the watery main,5
Increasing store with loss, and loss with store;

When I have seen such interchange of state,
Or state itself confounded to decay,6
Ruin hath taught me thus to ruminate—
That Time will come and take my Love away:

—This thought is as a death, which cannot choose
But weep to have that which it fears to lose.

译文

屠岸 译

我曾经看见:时间的残酷的手
捣毁了往古年代的异宝奇珍;
无常刈7倒了一度巍峨的高楼,
死的暴力甚至教赤铜化灰尘;

我又见到:贪婪的海洋不断
进占着大陆王国滨海的领地,
坚实的陆地也进占大海的地盘,
盈和亏,得和失相互代谢交替;

我见到这些循环变化的情况,
见到庄严的景象向寂灭沉沦;
断垣残壁就教我这样思量——
时间总会来夺去我的爱人。8

这念头真象“死”呀,没办法,只好
哭着把唯恐失掉的人儿抓牢。

我的感想

这首诗的比喻写的很不错——或者说是很沉重。

第一段将时间进行了人格化:时间会摧毁人类的造物,是人类无法企及的力量。第二段描述了海洋和陆地之间一场不分胜负的争斗。第三段中,描述者将这些观察结果应用于自己的状况,意识到死亡是不可避免的,时间最终会带走他的爱人。最后两句中,和莎士比亚通常的做法不同,没有提供解决方案,没有机敏的转折,只有不可避免的眼泪。[1]

好吧,即使是诗圣也有这么惨的时候……

参考文献

[1] Sonnet 64. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sonnet_64

脚注

1fell: 'cruel.'
2cost: 'costly object': an obsolete use found in 2 Hen. IV, I. iii. 60, 'leaves his part-created cost/A naked object to the weeping clouds.'
3sometime lofty: i.e. which once were lofty.
4eternal as the epithet of 'brass' is often found in the Roman poets.
5the firm soil win of the watery main: 'the land encroaching on the sea.' In some parts of the coast the sea is gaining on the land, in others the land is gaining on the sea; thus the 'store' is balanced by the 'loss.'
6state itself confounded to decay: i.e. not merely gained by another element, but wholly disappearing.
7刈,yì,割草。
8莎士比亚学者一般认为莎氏的十四行诗分类如下:第一至一七首是劝说诗人的青年朋友结婚,借以把美的典型在后代身上保存下来;第一八至一二六首继续着诗人对那位青年的倾诉;第一二七至一五二是献给一位女人的;第一五三至一五四则是希腊诗歌的仿作。故此行中的“爱人”有人译为“爱友”。——编注者